Hawker Hurricane II
The development of the Hawker Hurricane started in fact already in 1930, when Hawker designed the Hawker PV3 based upon RAF specification F7/30. The PV3 was in fact an enlarged version of the Hawker Fury.
This design was rejected, so Hawker began designing a monoplane with four machine guns, and powered by a Rolls Royce Goshawk.
On paper, this design was ready in January 1934, but there is no order followed. Chief designer Syndey Camm developed the design further with a retractable landing gear and a Rolls Royce PV-12 engine (later known as the Rolls Royce Merlin).
For wind tunnel tests a 1/10th scale model was built and tested. The tests were satisfactorily and Camm approached the Air Ministry again. This time the response was positive, and there was an assignment for the construction of a prototype.
In November 1934, the Air Ministry released Specification F.5/34, which was based on recommendations by Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley, who stated that fighters should be armed with eight machine guns.
The work on the mock-up was too far advanced to have it adjusted. In January 1935 the wooden mock-up was ready, and with a number of recommendations for some detail changes, the construction of the prototype was approved and a new specification (F.36/34) was written around the design.
In July 1935 this specification was changed and now included the installation of eight machine guns.
On November 6, 1935 the prototype K5083 made its first flight with Hawker's chief test pilot, Flight Lieutenant (later Captain Group) George Bulman.
The RAF trials started in February 1936 and the test results were favourable. The name "Hurricane" proposed by Hawker was approved on 26 June the same year.
Further investigation revealed that the Hurricane had a bad spin-recovery and a modification from the 61st production aircraft was made: an extension of the bottom of the rudder and the adjustment of the bottom of the hull solved the problem.
Initially, the unit was equipped with a Watts two-bladed propeller with fixed pitch, but from April 1939 it was replaced by a De Havilland three-blade variable pitch propeller. This especially reduced the take-off distance with about 140 m to 230 m.
In the summer of 1940, the De Havilland propeller was replaced by a three-blade hydraulic "constant-speed 'propeller.
The Hurricane construction was rather conventional, a metal frame covered with linen. Initially, the wing was also covered with linen.
In April 1939 Hawker introduced an all-metal wing, with which a higher dive speed was possible. Moreover, this wing could handle higher loads.
These wings are also applied to most (operational) Hurricanes.
An overview of the production of the Hawker Hurricane van be found here.
- Hurricane Mk I:
- First production version, with linen-covered wings, a wooden two-bladed fixed propeller, powered by the 1,030 hp (770 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin Mk II or III engine and armed with eight .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns. Produced between 1937 and 1939.
- Sea Hurricane IA: by General Aircraft Limited modified version for use from CAM ships, which were equipped with a slingshot. They could return on deck.
- Sea Hurricane Mk IB: Customized Hurricane Mk I version equipped with catapult spools plus an arrester hook. They were used from HMS Furious later from MAC ships.
- Sea Hurricane Mk IC: Hurricane Mk I equipped with slingshot, an arrester hook and the four-cannon wing. 400 aircraft were modified from February 1942 and on.
- Hurricane Mk I (refined):
- An improved version with a de Havilland (later Rotol constant speed) metal propeller, metal-covered wings, armor and other improvements.
- Hurricane Mk IIA Series 1:
- Featured an improved RR Merlin XX engine. The new engine was longer than the previous Merlin so the hull was 4.5 inch longer. The first Hurricane IIA flew June 11, 1940.
- Hurricane Mk IIB (Hurricane IIA Series 2):
- reinforced wings so a bombload up to 2x 500 pounds could be carried. Further this type had a new and slightly longer propeller spinner and an armament of 12 x .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns. The first aircraft were built in October 1940 and from April 1941 this model was designated as Mark IIB.
- Hurricane Mk IIB Trop: for us in North Africa with a Vokes dust filter and an desert survival kit.
- Hurricane Mk IIC:
- (Hurricane Mk IIA Series 2) with a new and slightly longer propeller spinner and two times two 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk II cannons in a customized wing. Further a bombload up to 2x 500 pounds could be carried and sometimes also referred to Hurribomber.
- Hurricane Mk T.IIC : two examples of a two seat trainer version built for the Persian air force.
- Sea Hurricane Mk IIC: Hurricane Mk IIC version wit a naval radio equipment; 400 examples were modified.
- Hurricane Mk IID:
- Modified Hurricane Mk IIB with two 40 mm (1.57 in) anti-tank guns in a pod, one loaded under each wing and a Browning machine gun in each wing with tracers for targeting. The newly-built aircraft had additional armour.
- Hurricane Mk IIE:
- version with modified wing, designated as Mk. IV from 25th aircraft.
- Hurricane Mk III:
- Hurricane Mk II with a Packard Merlin.
- Hurricane Mk IV:
- Equipped with an "universal wing", with which a large variance of armament could be supplied. Further equipped with an improved Merlin 24 or 27 engine of 1620 hp (1210 kW).
- Hurricane Mk V:
- The final version of which three were built. Equipped with a Merlin 32 engine of 1,700 hp.
- Hurricane Mk X:
- Canadian built version with a 1300 hp Packard Merlin 28 and eight 0.303 in (7,7 mm) machine guns. 490 examples built.
- Hurricane Mk XI:
- Canadian version. 150 examples built.
- Hurricane Mk XII:
- Canadian version with a 1300 hp (969 kW) Packard Merlin 29 and initially twelve 0.303 in (7,7 mm) machine guns, later four20 mm (0,79 inch) cannons.
- Hurricane Mk XIIA:
- Canadian version with a 1300 hp (970 kW) Packard Merlin 29 and eight 0.303 in (7,7 mm) machine guns.
- Sea Hurricane Mk XIIA: modified Hurricane Mk XIIA.
|Length:||9,84 m||Wingspan:||12,19 m|
|Height:||4 m||Wing area:||23,92 m2|
|Empty weight:||2605 kg||Max. start weight:||3480 kg|
|Max. speed:||547 km/hr||Climbing speed:||846 m/min|
|Cruising speed:||- km/hr|
|Range:||965 km||Service ceiling:||10970 m|
|Engine type:||One Rolls Royce Merlin XX rated 1200 hp|
|Armament:||Twelve Browning .303" (7.7 mm) wing mounted machine guns [the Mk. IIa had eight machine guns and a shorter propeller compared with the Mk. IIB]|