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Dutch Modelling and Aviation

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In Memoriam

Klaas Willem Jonker
(Wilko)
† April 30, 2018

On Monday 30 April 2018, Wilko Jonker died after a long illness at the age of 58. He leaves behind a wife and two children. The Dutch military aviation and plastic modeling were his hobby and on this website he shared all the knowledge he has collected over the years. His hobby has been able to distract him from the persistent disease in his body until the last week of his life. The contacts with other hobbyists were a major support for him.

This website will be maintained by different people for as long as possible, so that other enthusiasts can continue to benefit from extensive content.

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Wednesday, 13 November 2019 06:21

History.

Development.

In the sixties, in response to helicopter specifications of the British and French army, Westland and Aerospatiale started a joint development of a helicopter in three variants (one light, one medium and one heavy duty).
Westland developed the medium variant, the WG.13, the forerunner of the Westland Lynx, while Aerospatiale developed heavy and a light version, known as the Puma and Gazelle.
The WG.13 was first shown, in mock-up form, at the Paris Air Show in 1970.
The first prototype first flew on March 21, 1971. Later four additional prototypes were built for testing purposes.
The first deliveries took place in 1977. The project was delayed by problems encountered with Rolls-Royce engines. The first Lynx, a military variant, was identified as Lynx AH.1. This was once the basis for the later versions of Lynx.
The AH.1 was a conventional design with a four-bladed main rotor and tail rotor and as power units two Rolls Royce GEM 2 turbines of 670 KW each were installed.
The AH.I had a ski under carriage, and had, besides the two doors for the cockpit, two fairly large sliding doors on both sides of the fuselage. Besides the two-man crew ten to twelve men could be taken. As cargo three stretchers (with a medic) or 900 kg internal or 1360 kg to the sling could be taken. Furthermore, it was possible to add to both sides a 7.63 machine gun in the doorways.

 

Technical Information Westland Lynx AH.1
Dimensions:
Diameter main rotor 12,8 m Diameter tail rotor 2,21 m
Length without rotor 12,06 m Length with rotor 15,16 m
Height (at tail rotor) 3.66 m Height (at main rotor) 2.96 m
Weights:
Empty weight 2.785 kg Max weight 4.535 kg
Performance:
Max. speed 250 km/u Service ceiling 3.230 m
Range 540 km    

A total of 113 machines was delivered to the British Army and the Marines.
The Lynx was a very pleasant experience to fly and was also very agile, not least thanks to the newly designed rotor head.

Early eighties, 60 aircraft modified to use the U.S. Hughes TOW wire-guided anti-tank missile. These were called Lynx AH.1 TOW.
On aircraft was used as a test device for testing with a 20 mm cannon and Stinger AAM. There was also an attempt was made to break the speed record for helicopters. The aircraft was equipped with the newly developed BERP (= British Experimental Rotor Programme) rotor, which was entirely of plastic and had some bent and wider ends and the new GEM 60 RR engine rated 940 kW. This Lynx had an average speed of over 400 km/h

Upon delivery of the Lynx AH.1 followed an order for five AH.5s, which, for evaluation had to be fitted with another engine, the Rolls-Royce GEM 41-1 rated 835 kW, fitted on the first three AH.5s or Rolls Royce GEM-42, also of 835 kW, fitted to the last two AH.5s, and an improved and strengthened transmission system.

Evaluations of the AH.5 led to the Lynx AH.7 production version, which was equipped with the GEM 42 turbine. Also the diameter of the tail rotor made of composite, was increased to 2,36 m, the tail was modified and the airframe was strengthened and provisions were made to be able to add a so-called "Hay Box" at the outlets (a provision to mislead heat-seeking missiles), the seats were armoured with kevlar and avionics was improved.
Eventually, ten newly built aircraft (including the original six AH.5s), yet a further 107 AH.1s converted. Later were also other changes such as the aforementioned BERP rotor.

An successor of the Lynx was the Lynx 3, a more sophisticated and heavier version. It was developed as a candidate for an attack helicopter for the French and German army. It included a revised, thicker tail boom, Rolls Royce 60-3/1 GEM motors of 940 kW each, an enlarged fuselage and a tricycle undercarriage. Unfortunately for Westland was chosen for the Eurocopter Tiger and the development was stopped.

The Lynx Mark 9 was another variant, in fact an improved Lynx AH.7 in which some developments of Lynx 3 were included. This type was equipped with a wheel undercarriage, a provision for infra-red heat protection from the exhaust and the BERP-rotor blades.

There were 16 new aircraft ordered, while another 8 Lynx AH.7 's were converted. Later, the banks were replaced by chairs, disadvantage of this safer situation was that less passengers could be taken. A disadvantage of the modified landing gear was a special aid should be added for dropping troops, also the TOW facility could not be applied.

Marine version HAS Mk.2

Parallel to the development of the Army versions was the development of a version for the Navy, HAS.Mk. 2. This type was meant to succeed the smaller Westland Wasp. The first flight of the HAS.2 was in February 1976.
This variant had the same engines as the AH.1, the tail unit could be folded, it was fitted with a wheel base, clings to the deck, inflatable floats attached on the two main wheel bins and a Ferranti Seaspray radar in the nose.
Furthermore it could carry torpedoes, depth charges and such entrainment. For submarine warfare a towed  MAD could be added.

 

Technical information Westland Lynx HAS.2:
Dimensions:
Diameter main rotor 12,8 m Diameter tail rotor 2,21 m
Dimensions:
Fuselage length 11,92 m Length incl. main rotor 15,16 m
Height (at tailrotor) 3,60 m Height (at main rotor) 2,96 m
Weight:
Empty weight 3345 kg Max weight 4765 kg
Performance:
Max. speed 230 km/h    
Service ceiling 2575 m Range 95 km

The British Navy ordered  60 aircraft.

For  export reasons several other variants were developed, below an overview of these types:

Westland Lynx Mark 2 (FN):
for the (French) Aeronavale. This differed with the British version with regard to the radar, an Alcatel-4B DUAV dunking sonar instead of MAD and a provision for a hoist.
Westland Lynx Mk. 21:
nine examples for Brasil
>Westland Lynx Mk. 23:
two examples for Argentina
Westland Lynx Mk. 25:
The RNlNAS bought six machines of type Mk. 25. These were to be used for SAR, training and utility purposes. They were designated UH-14A and were delivered between 1976 and 1978.
Westland Lynx Mk.27:
The RNlNAS bought later ten Lynx Mk. 27s, designation SH-14B. These aircraft were delivered between 1978 and 1979. These aircraft were equipped with the more powerful GEM RR 4 Mk. 1010 engines of 836 hp; Alcatel-4A DUAV dunking sonar, and two Mk. 46 homing torpedoes.<
Westland Lynx Mk. 66:
Norway bought six Lynx Mk.86, which were delivered early eighties.
These aircraft were equipped with the Mark 4 1010 GEM RR engines, had equipment for flares, but were unarmed and the tail could not be folded.
However, the Seaspray radar was installed, and also a hoist and a camera.

Lynx HAS Mk.3

Soon after the HAS.2 its successor the HAS.3 was introduced.
This model had a stronger RR Gem 42-1 engines from 836 kW Mark 204 each, also the gearbox was adapted to transfer the increased power.
The number of floats was also increased from two to four, facilities for the installation of MAD and for the Orange Crop ESM with the necessary antennas under the tail.

23 units were delivered between 1982 and 1985. Furthermore, 53 HAS. 2 were upgraded.
Seven customized Lynx HAS.3 equipped with a secure radio system were delivered as HAS.3S.
Later, the machine were are adapted and equipped with a GPS system, FLIR and a chaff-flare plant.

Export versions of the HAS.3

Westland Lynx Mark 4 (FN):
France bought 14 "Lynx Mark 4 (FN)" with the improved engines and transmission of the Lynx HAS.3, but with the same avionics as the older machine of Aeronavale.
Westland Lynx Mk. 80:
for Argentina, but because of the Falklands war never delivered. These devices were adapted to the Danish specifications.
The Danish Lynxes were unarmed, but with Seapray radar, the tail could not be folded.
Two GEM RR 2 Mk. 1001 of 670 kW each were installed, later replaced by the more powerful RR Gem 42-1 Mk 204, as already installed on the Mk. 90; also, the transmission was changed.
Early 1990 machines were upgraded to seeing GPS, a data link, Orange Reaper RWR, Racal Kestrel ESM and FLIR.
These were designated Westland Lynx Mark 80A and Mark 90A respectively.
Later, a second upgrade followed to Super Lynx standard, under the designation Lynx Mk. 90B
Westland Lynx Mk. 81:
Early eighties, the Dutch MLD purchased another eight Lynx Mark 81s, called SH-14C.
These aircraft were fitted with Rolls Royce GEM41 engines and an improved. They were equipped with a towed MAD type AN/ASQ-81.
Westland Lynx Mk. 88:
The German Navy bought early eighties 19 Lynx Mark 88's. These were practically identical to the HAS.3, except that the tail could not be folded and also lacked the Bendix AN/ASQ-18 (v) dipping sonar.
Later the aircraft were upgraded to Super Lynx Standard.<
Westland Lynx Mk. 89:
Nigeria bought three Lynx Mark 89, equipped with Rolls Royce Gem 43-1 Mark 1020 engines, each 847 kW (1,135 SHP) and digital control of fuel supply, Bendix Primus 500 radar and a folding tail.

LYNX HMA.8

Parallel with the Lynx 3 also a naval variant was developed. Since there were no orders for this type, the development was eventually stopped.
However, a third generation was set up under the name Lynx HMA 8 Lynx, which accommodated some elements of the Lynx 3.
The Lynx HMA 8 was in fact a naval version of the Lynx AH.7 and had the Rolls Royce Gem 42 series 200 engines of 686 kW, BERP-rotor blades, enlarged tail rotor with composite blades.
The HMA 8 had a housing under the nose containing the Seaspray radar Mk 3, although for financial reasons the older Seaspray Mk 1 radar was also used in the same enclosure. There was a turret under the nose containing the Sea Owl electro-optic "Passive Identification Device (PID) and also there were also further improvements.

Ultimately, no new HMA 8 built, but existing mainly HMA.3 machines were converted to the new standard.

 

Technical information Westland Lynx Mk. 25 (UH-14 A)
Dimensions:
Length with rotor 12 m Rotor diameter: 12,8 m
Height: 3,6 m Diameter tail rotor - m
Weights:
Empty weight - kg Max. start weight - kg
Performance:
Max. speed 320 km/u cruising speed: 230 km/u
Range: 590 km Service ceiling: - m
Miscellaneous:
Engine type: Two Rolls Royce GEM 42 rated 500 kW each
Crew: Three men.
Armament:  

 

Technical information Westland Lynx Mk. 27 (SH-14B)
Dimensions:
Length with rotor 12 m Rotor diameter: 12,8 m
Height: 3,6 m Diameter tail rotor - m
Weights:
Empty weight - kg Max. start weight - kg
Performance:
Max. speed 320 km/u cruising speed: 230 km/u
Range: 590 km Service ceiling: - m
Miscellaneous:
Engine type: Two Rolls Royce GEM FR4RR rated 1120 hp each
Crew: Three men
Armament:  

 

Technical information Westland Lynx Mk. 81 (SH-14C)
Dimensions:
Length with rotor 12 m Rotor diameter: 12,8 m
Height: 3,6 m Diameter tail rotor - m
Weights:
Empty weight - kg Max. start weight - kg
Performance:
Max. speed 320 km/u cruising speed: 230 km/u
Range: 590 km Service ceiling: - m
Miscellaneous:
Engine type: Two Rolls Royce GEM FR4RR rated 1120 hp each
Crew: Three men.
Armament:  

 

Technical information Westland Lynx SH-14D
Dimensions:
Length with rotor 12 m Rotor diameter: 12,8 m
Height: 3,6 m Diameter tail rotor - m
Weights:
Empty weight - kg Max. start weight - kg
Performance:
Max. speed 320 km/u cruising speed: 230 km/u
Range: 590 km Service ceiling: - m
Miscellaneous:
Engine type: Two Rolls Royce GEM FR4R rated 1120 hp each
Crew: Three men.
Armament: 2 torpedoes, 1 machine-gun 7,62 mm, Dipping-sonar, radar, FLIR (Forward Looking Infra-Red)